Concrete Compressive Strength Data Set

 

Task: regression

Number of instances: 1030

Number of attributes: 7 (numerical)

Type of attribute to be predicted: numerical

Download the data: DataConcrete

 

Concrete is a construction material with a non-linear mechanical behaviour difficult to predict. The objective is here to analyze a dataset of 1030 distinct formulations of concretes in order to model the compression strength according to the formulation. The potentially influential variables are the contents (in kg/m3) of 7 different components (the cement, the blast furnace slags, the fly ashes, the water, the superplasticizers, the coarse aggregates, the fine aggregates) and the age of the material.

 

Sources: Prof. I-Cheng Yeh, Department of Information Management, Chung-Hua University, Hsin Chu, Taiwan. Data found in the UCI Machine Learning Repository.

 

 

Model with 1 variable

 

* If (Age is lower than 50) then (Compression strength decreases)

 

   Mean Error: 10,7 MPa

   Mean Square Error: 13,8 MPa

   Maximal Error: 47,3 MPa

   Maximum : 45,6 MPa (Age is higher than 60 days)

   Minimum : 16,5 MPa (Age is minimal)

 

This model suggests that it is necessary to wait 60 days before the concrete stabilizes and reaches its maximum compression strength. The following graph represents the model (in red) and the experimental values (points in green):

 

 

Model with 2 variables

 

* If (Age is lower than 50) then (Compression strength decreases)

* If (Cement increases) then (Compressive strength increases)

 

   Mean Error: 8,4 MPa

   Mean Square Error: 10,6 MPa

   Maximal Error: 41,9 MPa

   Maximum : 73,6 MPa (Age is higher than 60 days, Cement is maximal)

   Minimum : 1,8 MPa (Age is minimal, Cement is minimal)

 

In addition to the influence of the age, this model is linked to the content of cement that clearly increases the compression strength (in a quasi linear way). The following graph represents the model for an age lower than 5 days (in red) and an age of 100 20 days (in green):

 

 

Model with 3 variables

 

* If (Age is lower than 50) then (Compression strength decreases)

* If (Cement increases) and (Superplasticizer increases) then (Compressive strength increases)

 

   Mean Error: 8,9 MPa

   Mean Square Error: 9 MPa

   Maximal Error: 40 MPa

   Maximum : 81,9 MPa (Age is higher than 60 days, Cement is maximal, Superplasticizer is higher than 20 kg/m3)

   Minimum : 0 MPa (Age is minimal, Cement is minimal, Superplasticizer is minimal)

 

This model includes the content of superplasticizer which increases the compression strength. However, there is a threshold (20 kg/m3): above it the superplasticizer does not have effect any more as the following graph shows (obtained with age = 100 40 days):

 

 

Model with 4 variables

 

* If (Cement decreases) and (Age decreases) then (Compressive strength decreases)

* If (Cement increases) and (Blast Furnace Slagincreases) and (Superplasticizer increases) then (Compressive strength increases)

 

   Mean Error: 5,9 MPa

   Mean Square Error: 7,8 MPa

   Maximal Error: 35,8 MPa

   Maximum : 101 MPa (Age is maximal, Cement is maximal, Superplasticizer is higher than 12 kg/m3, Blast Furnace Slag is maximal)

   Minimum : 0 MPa (Age is minimal, Cement is minimal, Superplasticizer is minimal, Blast Furnace Slag is minimal)

 

This model adds the influence of the content of Blast Furnace Slag which increases the compression strength. The next graph is obtained with age = 100 40 days and Superplasticizer = 15 4 kg/m3:

 

Model with 5 variables

 

* If (Cement increases) and (Blast Furnace Slag increases) and (Superplasticizer increases) and (Age increases) then (Compressive strength increases)

* If (Cement decreases) and (Water is higher than 120) then (Compressive strength decreases)

 

   Mean Error: 5,4 MPa

   Mean Square Error: 7,2 MPa

   Maximal Error: 29,9 MPa

   Maximum : 92,4 MPa (Age is maximal, Cement is maximal, Superplasticizer is maximal, Blast Furnace Slag is higher than 305 kg/m3, water is lower than 110 kg/m3)

   Minimum : 0 MPa (Age is minimal, Cement is minimal, Superplasticizer is minimal, Blast Furnace Slag is minimal, water is higher than 190 kg/m3)

 

This model reveals the negative influence of water on the compression strength of concrete. The following graph is obtained with age = 100 20 days and cement = 200 30 kg/m3:

 

 

 
 

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